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ALOHA, HAWAII - OUR 50TH STATE - A CROSSING OF CULTURES
by Laurel Dalling
Idaho State University

GRADE: 5 to 8

TIME ALLOTMENT: Six 30 to 45 minute class periods

SUBJECT MATTER: History and Social Studies

OVERVIEW
With the arrival of the “haole”, or foreigner, in 1778 to the Hawaiian Islands, many changes took place. As the strangers arrived in the island paradise, they brought an upheaval of traditions and culture. Hawai`i, as an isolated island kingdom of plants, animals, and people, would not last long with the introduction of foreign people and ways. The Hawaiian people had a unique culture filled with tradition. When the explorers, missionaries, and new settlers ventured across the many waters of the Pacific Ocean they brought their own customs and culture. As these cultures met, the fate of the Hawaiian people would change forever. Through the activities presented in this lesson, the students will become familiar with the circumstances of the Hawaiian people and the changes that took place when Europeans arrived on the islands. The students will connect this time period with prior knowledge and personal history. In addition, students will learn of customs and lifestyles of both groups of people. The students will examine and compare some of the challenges that face the Hawaiian people and offer some original suggestions.


LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Students will :

  • Associate an event in the history of the state of Hawai`i with their own prior knowledge and personal history.
  • Identify the mode of travel incorporated by the early Hawaiian people and provisions they brought with them.
  • Describe the living conditions of the early Hawaiian people.
  • Identify the first non-Polynesians who came to the Hawaiian Islands and what they brought.
  • Describe the lifestyle of the new settlers in Hawai`I.
  • Explain the consequences that came as a result of the introduction of foreigners to Hawai`i.
  • Describe some of the challenges that face the state of Hawai`i today, consider what is being done to meet these challenges, and offer some original suggestions for solutions.

STANDARDS

From the National Standards for History, grades 5-12 http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/nchs/standards

Students will:

  • Think about chronological time as they distinguish between the past and the present.They will begin to explain the changes that occur to some people over time. (NSH 1A and 1G)
  • Comprehend the events in a historical time.They will read historical narratives and record their findings on fact sheets. (NSH 2D)
  • Analyze and interpret the causes for changes in the Hawaiian lifestyle. They will hypothesize the influences of the past on the present society. (NSH 3H and 3J)
  • Obtain historical data as they increase their research capabilities. (NSH 4B)
  • Identify problems and dilemmas. They will analyze the causes and propose a solution to a current problem. (NSH 5A-E)

PREP FOR TEACHER

Prior to the teaching, bookmark all of the Web sites used in the lesson. Load any plug-ins necessary to run the Web sites. Cue the videotape to the appropriate starting point. Copy an introductory lesson activity sheet for each student.

Obtain pictures or artifacts from Hawaiian culture. (Such as: ukulele, lei, tiki, coconut, shells, surfing, flowers, travel posters, etc. ) Copy Early Hawaiians fact sheet for each student. Copy Explorers, Missionaries, and Early Settlers of Hawai`i fact sheet for each student. Copy Aloha Crossword Puzzle. Copy Aloha Bingo.

PREVIEWING ACTIVITIES

Setting the Stage The following activity will prepare your students for a lesson on the arrival of foreigners to the Hawaiian Islands and the changes that occurred because of this intrusion.

Step 1: Establishing a Personal Connection to History Assign this the day before the first lesson. Explain to your students that you will be examining a historic event that took place in the late 1700's. You will be discovering the background leading to the event and the consequences resulting from this event. Assign students to take the questionnaire home and conduct an interview with someone who was alive in 1959.

Step 2: Begin the lesson by displaying an arrangement of artifacts or pictures of Hawaiian culture. (Ukulele, lei, tiki, coconut, shells, surfing, flowers, etc. ) Next, compare and discuss the answers the students received to their questionnaires. Be sure to connect these answers to the artifacts, their resource person, and the admitting of Hawai`i as the fiftieth state. Add any thoughts or ideas the students contribute. These answers may be recorded on an overhead transparent sheet or on the board so all can observe as students respond with their various answers. Let the students know that many people can remember or know things about this unique state. Now we will begin finding out more and adding to the knowledge we have already discovered.

Step 3: Ask your students to log on to the e-Hawaii Web Site. (http://www.hawaiianshop.com/Hawaiian_Names.html)

Provide your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION, by asking them to find their name in the Hawaiian language. Have them write their name in Hawaiian at the top of their introductory paper in the rectangle at the top.

MATERIALS

MEDIA COMPONENTS

Video
National Geographic Video, Hawaii: Strangers in Paradise, Journey to an Eden of Splendor. 60 minutes / color / 1991 / BBC Bristol.

WEB SITES

http://www.hawaiianshop.com/
Hawaiian_Names.html

In this site, students can find their name in the Hawaiian language.

Hawaiian Islands History http://www.tropicalisland
vacation.com
/hawaiihistory.html
Gives a general history of the Hawaiian people. Does not list provisions brought, but does tell about the voyage. Scroll down to the section on The First Hawaiians (lesson two) and then to the Captain Cook section (lesson four).

Provisions for Polynesian Voyages http://leahi.kcc.hawaii.edu/org
/pvs/holmesprovisions.html

Tells how to provision a voyaging canoe for a Polynesian voyage Hawaii. It tells of plants and animals that were carried in canoes. Plants Introduced to Hawai`i by the Ancestors of the Hawaiian People

http://leahi.kcc.hawaii.edu/org
/pvs/migrationsplants.html

This site lists the plants brought to the islands by the ancestors of the Hawaiian people. Includes place of origin of the plant and its uses.

Hawai`iloa and the Discovery of Hawai`i http://leahi.kcc.hawaii.edu
/org/pvs/traditionsloa.html

Tells of ancient Hawaiian voyaging by canoe and the settlement in Hawai`i. They brought their wives and families.

Galapagos Web Site http://www.imax.com/galapagos In this site, students can identify deep-sea animals in a game format.

Natural Hawai`iColonial History http://www.naturalhawaii.com/
history/colonialhistory.htm

A great overview of the colonization of the Hawaiian Islands. Includes Captain Cook, missionaries, and early settlers to

Hawai`i. Natural Hawai`i: Flora and Fauna http://www.naturalhawaii.
com/general/flora.htm

This site tells of the introductions of various flora and fauna to the islands and describes their origin. Natural Hawai`i:

Economy
http://www.naturalhawaii.com
/general/economy.htm

Discusses the economy of Hawai`i.

Maui and Hawaiian Chronology http://www.mauimapp.com
/moolelo.htm

Scroll down to 1795-1893: Kingdom and open this page. Describes of a timeline of events in Hawaiian history.


VIEWING ACTIVITIES

Comprehending the Context and Events in History

Step 1: Now that the students have a Hawaiian name, a them how they think the Hawaiian people first came to the islands. Brainstorm and list ideas. Ask students what they think the Hawaiians brought with them. Brainstorm and list ideas.

Step 2: Divide the class into groups and ask them to glean information from assigned web sites. Provide a FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION, by asking your students to identify the mode of travel incorporated by the early Hawaiian people and the provisions they brought with them. The students will record their findings on the Early Hawaiians sheet (copy found at end of unit) as they find information. This can be recorded as pictures or notes.

Web Sites that can be used:
Hawaiian Islands History http://www.tropicalislandvacation.com/hawaiihistory.html Provisions for Polynesian Voyages http://leahi.kcc.hawaii.edu/org/pvs/holmesprovisions.html Plants Introduced to Hawai`i by the Ancestors of the Hawaiian People http://leahi.kcc.hawaii.edu/org/pvs/migrationsplants.html Hawai`iloa and the Discovery of Hawai`i http://leahi.kcc.hawaii.edu/org/pvs/traditionsloa.html About Hawai`i: The Navigators http://www.gopacific.com/hawaii/history/NAVI.html

Step 3: After your students have recorded information, have them share what they learned with the class. Keep papers for the next lesson.

Early Hawaiian Culture
Step 1: Explain to your students that you will explore the early Hawaiian culture through the use of video. Distribute fact sheets on Early Hawaiians from previous lesson. Insert Hawaii: Stranger in Paradise into your VCR.

Provide your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION, asking them to record on the bottom of their fact sheet pictures or notes about the early Hawaiian lifestyle. Have them watch for plants, animals, and type of boats used.

START playing the video after the introduction and the Chevron sign and you see golden waves. PLAY the video until you see a gold frame appear, the National Geographic music plays, and the screen says “Hawaii: Strangers in Paradise”. PAUSE the video. (2-3 minutes) Check for comprehension by asking the students to describe the plants and animals they saw and the type of boat the Hawaiians were using. (Coconut, breadfruit, pig, chicken, lizard)

Step 2: Provide your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION, by asking them to continue to record their thoughts and observations as you continue the video. Have the students watch for navigation, provisions, the forming of the islands, the uses of feathers, and crops.

FAST FORWARD the video until the screen is black. PLAY the video until there are clouds whirling and the narrator says, “But that storm was only a breeze compared to the hurricane that was to come”. (About 12 minutes) STOP the video. Check for comprehension by asking the students how the Hawaiians navigated in the vast ocean. (North star) Remind the students that we listed provisions in our earlier lesson.

Ask your students to explain why the early Hawaiians brought plants and animals with them. (Survive in a new land) Have them describe how the islands were formed. (Volcanic action) Ask your students to explain the uses of the brightly colored feathers. (Royalty cloaks, means of paying taxes) What was the most important crop to the early Hawaiians? (Taro)

Step 3: Remind your students that the Hawaiian Islands are surrounded by ocean. Tell them that they can explore some of the wonders of the deep sea as ancient Hawaiians might have done.

Ask your students to log on to the Galapagos Web Site (http://www.imax.com/galapagos) Go to Play Deep Sea Search. In this site, they can identify deep sea animals in a game format. Provide your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION, by asking them to identify three deep sea animals. Save the Early Hawaiian fact sheets for comparison in a later lesson.

Early Hawaiian Settlers Part 1
Step 1: Ask the students how they think the first non-Polynesian people came to the islands. Brainstorm and list ideas. Ask students what they think the non-Polynesians brought with them. Brainstorm and list ideas.

Step 2: Divide the class into groups and ask them to glean information from assigned web sites.

Provide a FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION, by asking your students to identify the mode of travel incorporated by the explorers, missionaries, and early settlers to Hawai`i and the provisions they brought with them. Have the students record their findings on the Explorers, Missionaries, and Early Settlers of Hawai`i sheet as they find information. This can be recorded as pictures or notes.

Web Sites that can be used:
Hawaiian Islands History http://www.tropicalislandvacation.com/hawaiihistory.html Natural Hawai`i Colonial History http://www.naturalhawaii.com/history/colonialhistory.htm Natural Hawai`i: Flora and Fauna http://www.naturalhawaii.com/general/flora.htm
Natural Hawai`i: Economy http://www.naturalhawaii.com/general/economy.htm
Maui and Hawaiian Chronology http://www.mauimapp.com/moolelo.htm

Step 3: After your students have recorded information, have them share what they learned with the class. Keep papers for the next lesson.

Early Hawaiian Settlers Part 2

Step 1: Explain to your students that you will explore the early Hawaiian settlers through the use of video. Distribute fact sheets on Explorers, Missionaries, and Early Settlers of Hawai`i from previous lesson. Insert Hawaii: Stranger in Paradise into your VCR.

Provide your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION, asking them to record on the bottom of their fact sheet pictures or notes about the early Hawaiian settlers lifestyle and to record any thoughts and observations. Have the students watch for plants, animals, and boats brought by the early settlers.

START playing the video after the narrator says, “But that storm was only a breeze compared to the hurricane that was to come.” (Where you stopped it for the previous lesson) You should see a large ship rolling in the waves. PLAY the video until you see a helicopter land and the narrator says, “These men are looking for a missing bird, the Kaua`i o`o, the rarest bird in the world, if it still exists.”STOP the tape. (About 3 1/2 minutes)

Step 2: Check for comprehension by asking the students to describe what plants, animals, and boats the early explorers, missionaries, and settlers brought to Hawai`i. (Domestic cattle, rats, pigeons, parrots, goats, sugar cane, pineapple, coconut palms, large cargo ships, businessmen, tourists, and modern progress.) Ask the students if all these imports were intentional. (No, rats)

Have students tell you why Hawai`i was important to these European people. Explain that on January 18, 1778, two large ships approached Kaua`i. Led by British Captain James Cook, the sailors became the first non-Polynesians to see the Hawaiian Islands. Stopping to take on provisions, they were given a warm aloha welcome. On Cook’s second visit, hostilities broke out between Hawaiians and Cook’s men, and Cook was clubbed to death. But Hawai`i was now on the map, and the islands became a popular stopover for trade ships traveling between America and Asia. Because of its location and long growing season, it looked like a valuable acquisition to several nations. Protestant missionaries from New England landed in Hawai`i in 1820. They opened schools and churches and created an alphabet for the Hawaiian language. Workers came to work in the plantation fields form many countries, mostly Asian. Many of these workers stayed in the islands and started businesses.

Step 3: Remind your students that Hawai`i has many traditions and items of interest. Tell them that they can use their fact sheets, encyclopedias, and resource books to complete a crossword puzzle on Hawai`i. Distribute the Aloha Bingo. Read answers (you may want to write these on the board) and have students enter these in their squares in a random order. Ask the questions, call on a student for an answer, confirm the correct answer, and let students mark their cards with a small X in the correct square. If students do not know the answer, let students use their fact sheets, encyclopedias, and resource books to research answers. Play the game as time allows. Save both fact sheets for comparison in the next lesson.

POST VIEWING ACTIVITIES

CULMINATING ACTIVITY
In order to help students understand the changes that took place in Hawai`i, the students need to consider the questions and problems that were a result of the merging of two cultures.

Step 1: Analyzing the merging of cultures. To help students understand the changes that took place in the Hawaiian Islands, have the students examine their fact sheets and compare them for similarities and differences. Ask the students to describe these to the class.

Step 2: Ask the students to hypothesize the influences of the Hawaiians on the Europeans. These answers may be recorded on an overhead transparent sheet or on the board so all can observe as students respond with their various answers.

Step 3: Ask the students to hypothesize the influences of the Europeans on the Hawaiians. These answers may be recorded on an overhead transparent sheet or on the board so all can observe as students respond with their various answers.

Step 4: Explain to your students that you will view the video to discover some additional problems that resulted from the merging of these two cultures.Insert Hawaii: Stranger in Paradise into your VCR.

Provide your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION, by asking them to note some of the challenges that face the state of Hawai`i.

FAST FORWARD the video (about 3 minutes from the end of the previous lesson) to where you see a blackish-gray bird begin to appear from the bottom of the screen.

START playing the tape before the narrator says, “But what happened to the o`o, nobody knows for sure.”

PLAY the tape until the narrator says, “In fact, until recently no one had ever heard of a caterpillar that caught live prey.” Wait for a hand to pick the leaf with the caterpillar on it. STOP the video. (About 7 1/2 minutes)

 

 

POST VIEWING ACTIVITIES (Con't)

Step 5: Ask the students to consider some of the consequences that came as a result of the introduction of foreigners to Hawai`i. Ask the students: Can the balance in a native country be upset by the introduction of foreign plants and animals? What is being done about this? How would the students solve this problem? Explain that human settlers, Hawaiians and Europeans, introduced many species to Hawai`i. Some, like rats, were stowaways on boats. Others were introduced to serve a specific purpose. But introduced species cause more problems for native species than they solve. For example, the mongoose, imported to get rid of rats, instead stalks the Hawaiian goose (nene) and other birds that nest on the ground.

Step 6: Ask for student response to these questions:

  • What about resistance to germs? Or property rights? What is being done about this? How would the students solve this problem?

Explain that Hawaiians did not own land. All land was held by the king in trust for his people, but every family could use as much land as needed. Westerners convinced the king that land reform was necessary. Each family was given ownership of its land. Lacking understanding of the new system, many Hawaiians sold their land to foreigners. By 1880, 80 percent of the land was owned by non-natives. Large amounts of land were used for sugarcane and pineapple plantations. However, before foreign greed robbed the Hawaiians of their land, western diseases, to which they had no immunity, took a huge toll. When Cook arrived, there were about 300,000 Hawaiians. By 1853, there were fewer than 70,000.

Step 7: Ask students if they think it is right for one country to change the customs in another country? How can traditions and customs be preserved when two cultures merge? Would you want your paradise to perish? What is being done about this? How would the students solve this problem?

Explain that 9,000 Hawaiian residents are of pure Hawaiian ancestry, and 200,000 others are part Hawaiian. Hawaiians have the lowest education and income levels and the shortest life expectancy of any group in the state. Many of them see Hawai`i as an occupied land. In 1993, Congress passed the Apology Resolution, recognizing that the overthrow of the monarchy in 1983 was illegal. As more and more visitors come, spots that were once quiet and sparsely populated are now filled with tourists.

Residents feel crowded out, but they also contribute to the crowding. As Hawai`i is an island state, there is no land left for building new highways. Many native Hawaiians support native rule. Some think Hawaiians should have a nation within a nation, like Indian reservations in the continental U.S. Others want complete independence and the restorations of the monarchy. Ask the students to articulate what they think about these issues.

EXTENSIONS

Social Studies/Language Arts:
Learn about the Hawaiian language. The Hawaiian language was strictly a spoken language until the first missionaries arrived in Hawai`i in 1820. They established phonetic spellings for Hawaiian words, using just 12 English letters: the five vowels, and eight consonants. The five vowels are: A, E, I, O, and U. The eight consonants are: H, I, L, M, N, P, W, and the `okina. The symbol [`] is an `okina and signifies a pause before the next sound is pronounced. Thus, Hawai`i is pronounced ha-WAH-ee. That is why you will see the 50th state spelled Hawai`i and not Hawaii. Hawaiians spell their homeland Hawai`i because that is the way it is spelled in the Hawaiian language.

Many of the street and location signs in the islands are changing to include the `okina symbol. Have students create a Hawaiian language primer that could have been used in the early missionary schools. Have them illustrate their primer.

Science:
Research how the Hawaiian Island chain was formed. Do a study of volcanoes and the Pacific “Ring of Fire”. With papier-mâché, form the eight islands that make up the state of Hawai`i, including the volcanic mountain ranges. This could be done on plywood or cardboard, then painted to represent land and water. Label important bodies of water, towns, and mountain ranges. Indicate active volcanoes.

Fine Arts/Social Science/Technology:
Learn to sing and dance. Put on a Luau (feast). Learn some Hawaiian words. Play some Hawaiian games. Visit this web site to learn more. Click on various areas. This web site is from Moloka`i and filled with lots of very user friendly information. http://oldhawaii.com/

Visual Arts:
Make a lei. Take squares of brightly colored tissue paper and crumple them lightly, one by one, in your hand. Then use a needle and thread or fishing line to string them together. Tie the two ends of the thread or line together. May also use construction paper flowers separated by lengths of cut drinking straws. – Though now a popular tourist item, leis go back to ancient Hawai`i. They are worn around the neck or head and are made from flowers, leaves, vines, berries, nuts, shells, or feathers. Each island has a distinctive way of making leis and its own preferred materials. The shell leis of Ni`ihau are highly prized. A modern legend says that if a visitor throws a lei into the harbor upon leaving Hawai`i and the lei reaches the beach, the person will return.

Social Science/Language Arts:
Discover some of the legends of Hawai`i. The ancient Hawaiians worshipped many gods and goddesses. Kane was the creator and chief god. Kanaloa ruled the ocean. Ku was the chief god of war. Lono ruled over agriculture and healing. Today, the most famous of the Hawaiian spirits is Pele, goddess of volcanoes. Kahuna, or priests, honored the gods with rituals at temples or shrines, called heaus. They also advised the chiefs on spiritual matters. There are countless legends of the goddess Pele. One tells of two girls roasting breadfruit. Pele appears and asks for food. One girl gives generously; the other refuses, insisting that she is preparing it for a god. Pele sends fire to destroy the home of the stingy girl, but warns the generous girl so that she can protect her home. – Have students write their own “Hawaiian” legend.

Community Connections:

  • Contact the nearest Polynesian Club. Have them come perform their native dances and share their culture with the students.
  • Arrange for a visit to a local early mission site. Have the students learn what early mission life was like and how it could have been similar to early missionary life in Hawai`i.
  • Arrange for a local grocer to visit your classroom and discuss Hawaiian fruits that are available in the grocery store. Have the grocer explain the benefits and care of the fruits. How hard would it have been to take these fruits to the islands without refrigeration? How did the people solve that problem?
  • Arrange for a naturalist or zoologist to visit your classroom. Have them discuss the native animals in the islands and how they can be protected. Have them also discuss local animals and how the students can protect them.
  • Contact a local museum to see what they have to offer in the area of instruction as to what early settlers in your area brought with them.

For additional lesson plans and ideas relating to this topic and many others try TeacherSource at PBS Online! You will find activities, lesson plans, teacher guides and links to other great educational web sites! Search the database by keyword, grade level or subject area! Mathline and Scienceline are also great resources for teachers seeking teaching tips, lesson plans, assessment methods, professional development, and much more!


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