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Astronauts: Glossary

A

academic
related to school or studying
artificial environment
conditions provided by equipment that allow a person to be comfortable, safe, breathe, keep a normal body temperature, work, etc.
asteroids
space bodies smaller than planets — many orbit between Mars and Jupiter
astronaut
from the Greek meaning "star-sailor"

B

black holes
a space body with gravity so intense that even light cannot escape

C

carbon dioxide
a gaseous element that is exhaled as a waste product
chemistry
science of matter
cochlear implants
surgically implanted devices to allow the deaf to hear
comets
balls of ice, dust and gas that orbit the sun
competition
a rivalry between two groups, such as sports teams
cosmonaut
Russian version of an astronaut — "universe-sailor"

D

docking port
a door or opening to allow craft to lock up and pass people or equipment through without losing atmosphere

E

electrical generator
equipment used for creating electricity
electrolysis
passing electricity through a substance to create a chemical change
engineering
art of using science, physics, and math in construction

F

flammable
capable of catching fire

G

galaxies
groups of solar systems and other space bodies; the Milky Way is a galaxy
gravity
natural attraction of matter between one body and another

H

hydrogen
gaseous element; the most abundant element in the universe; combines with oxygen to form water
hygiene
personal care: bathing, brushing teeth, shaving, etc.

I

innovations
creative new things
international
involving many countries
International Space Station
also known as ISS — a large construction orbiting the earth; used for science and space study

L

laboratory
place to perform experiments, work with chemicals, etc.

M

manned
requires the aid of a human inside the device to make it work
mechanical
having to do with machines
meteoroids
small space bodies that can enter Earth's atmosphere and become a meteor
meteorology
study of weather
microgravity
condition where bodies are in a freefall back to Earth — they appear to be weightless
micrometeorites
dust particles found in space
military
agencies that protect our country: Army, Navy, Marine Corp, Air Force, and Coast Guard

O

orbital debris
also known as space junk; might include bolts, chunks of metal, gloves, tools that have been left in space and are orbiting the Earth

P

pacemakers
medical devices that keep a person's heart beating correctly
photosynthesis
process by which plants convert sunlight into energy
physicians
medical doctors

Q

qualifications
knowledge, skills and experience a person might have that fit a specific job

R

radiation
energy emitted in particles or waves
resistant
to protect

S

satellites
anything that orbits the Earth — the moon is a satellite. Also, man-made equipment that provides communication and orbits the Earth. Cell service, television, weather and other information can be transmitted from satellites.
scuba
self-contained underwater breathing apparatus, i.e., diving equipment; especially the oxygen tank portion
simulators
equipment that provides users the opportunity to practice as if someone were in the real environment
solar panels
Special materials that convert the sun's energy into electricity
solar system
A sun and the bodies that orbit that sun
spacewalk
To leave a spacecraft and go out into space in a special suit
subatomic particles
particles smaller than an atom

T

taikonaut
Chinese version of an astronaut — "space-sailor"
technology
application of science to aid mankind
tethered
attached

U

unmanned
does not require the aid of a human inside the device to make it work — controlled by radio or other methods
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